Do you have any problems with distortion of parts from welding and quench hardening?
We can solve these problems by using the latest laser technology!
Overview of Laser Quenching
Level of Hardness
Equipment for Laser Quenching
Case study of Laser Quenching
Cost reduction of large press Dies for automobile parts
|Model name||Door inner Stamping Die (Figure 14)|
|Quenched Part||Beat Location and all the die Radius|
|Level of Hardness HRC||HRC58～63|
- Cost Reduction by PROX 20% (our cost comparison) Changing the Base material from FCD 600 to FC 300.
- Result of Cost and time reductions on Laser Quenching, By changing the process of bead location,
Avoid burning and scratches on Beat location or Radius After Polishing, Tig Welding and tool work to make it harder <Polishing → Tig Welding → Re Tooling → Polishing>
Using Laser Quenching:
We can skip Tig Welding → Re Tooling → Polishing <Polishing → Laser Quenching>
- Improvement on the stability on hardness (Radius Location ).
Before: Radius location were hardened by flame quenching,
Flame Quenching have defects ( insufficient hardness, cracks, melting, etc.,)
After Laser Quenching: The above-mentioned defects are resolved through a uniformed hardness obtained.
- Improvement of surface treatment durability.
Before: 50,000 ~ 70,000 shots for re treatment (Hard Chrome Plating)
After Laser Quenching on Base Material:
100,000 shots or more for re treatment (Hard Chrome Plating)
That's because the strength of the base metal were improved.
Also, it could prevent cohesive failure of the plating film and the base material.
Door inner Stamping Die (Figure 14)
Countermeasures against seizure of die insert for Forming Die（discarded quenching）
|Model name||Forming Die (Figure 15)|
|Quenched Part||The sliding surface of the movable insert|
|Level of Hardness||HRC50～55|
Laser Quenching for high alloy tool steel for cold Dies (SKD-11)
The carbide of SKD-11 is a carbide component containing chromium.
In alloy tool steel containing a large concentration of carbon and chromium, if carbon is dissolved too much in the heating area, a large amount of retained austenite is produced and the ideal hardness cannot be obtained. Especially the surface layer is prone to soften.
For that reason, an adjustment of laser output, irradiation speed, etc.
However, it may not suitable for Laser Quenching.
- Before: The quenching were not performed in the trial stages Due to adjustment on the shape. Therefore, there are burning and seizure of movable insert.
After Laser Quenching on the sliding surface of the movable insert:
The seizure was eliminated and the trial time were drastically shortened and reduced A vacuum quenching is performed after trial.
Forming Die (Figure 15)
Counter Measure against seizure of the injection mold
|Model name||(Figure 16)Plastic Injection Mold|
|Quenched Part||Locking block matching surface, Sliding surface of the movable insert|
|Level of Hardness||HRC58～62|
- Laser Quenching were performed on the sliding surfaces of the locking block engraved in the mold base as well as on the movable insert.
Before: Hardening treatment was performed by flame quenching.
However, an adjustment process of the variation of hardness, distortion and deformation were necessary.
After the Laser Quenching treatment:
The adjustment process became unnecessary. It only needed the removing the oxidization on the surface by sand paper. The huge cost reduction were done.
Figure 16 is a diagram of a plastic injection mold image and a pictures of Locking Block section (quenching)
Reduce cost of roller hemming mold
|Model name||Roof roller hemming mold (Figure 17)|
|Quenched Part||The entire hem-folded surface|
|Level of Hardness||HRC56～62|
- Before: After curing treatment by flame hardening, the roller hemming mold were modified and adjusted by the cutting of the distortion and deformation. If the strain after quenching is 0.1mm or less, the cutting work is unnecessary. In the case of the hemming mold shown in FIG. 17, distortion and deformation occurred because of the portion of cavities. But if we perform Laser Quenching under normal conditions It will have approximately 0.3mm distortion. However Laser Quenching can adjust it quenching conditions of laser output (Create the Jigs for Laser Quenching) The distortion were suppressed to 0.1mm or less as a result.
Roof roller hemming mold (Figure 17)
Laser Welding is a precise welding method that penetrates deeply and heats up only the area that is being welded.
High density energy instantly melts the irradiated area of steel which then turns the part of the melting pool to metal vapor.
In reaction to the metal vapor blowing out, it pushes the tip of the melting pool downwards.
As a result, an elongated columnar shaped hollow called a "Keyhole" is formed in the molten metal.
Irradiating the inner surface of this Keyhole with the laser allows the heat to penetrate and melt much deeper.
Advantages of Laser Welding
- There is almost no influence of heat distortion and under cuts.
- Micro processing is possible such as welding the tip of a needle.
- It is possible to weld narrow and deep areas.
- Preheating and heat treatment are unnecessary before and after welding.
- Grinding and after-processing time can be greatly reduced.
Applications of laser welding
Comparison between laser welding and TIG Welding
Ideal Welding = narrow thermal impact range and welding with deep penetration
It is possible to weld with deep penetration and the heat affected range can be narrowed because the laser light has high energy density, TIG Welding with low energy density melts only the base metal and it cannot penetrate deeply with heat conduction.
About Laser Welding
Types of Welding Rods
Welding rods can procure most kinds from each welding material manufacture.
Please slide sideways.
|Classification||Material(JIS)||Main welding wires|
|Soft steel||SS, SM, SB, SPCC, etc..||Mold 90 etc..|
|Carbon steel||S10～58C, SK(Carbon tool steel), FC・FCD(Cast iron), etc..||Use properly according to the use|
|Low-alloy steel||SCM, SNCM, SCr, SNC, etc..
(PX5, PXA30, HPM1・2・7・50, NAK55・80, PLAMAX, etc..)
|Mold 90plus etc..|
|Hot-alloy steel||SKD61, SKD61(improved steel), SKD4～8, etc..
(DAC, ORVAR, DHA1, DH2F, KDA, FDAC, etc..)
|Mold 55 etc..|
|Cold-alloy steel||SKD11, SKD11(improved steel), SKD1～2, SKH, etc..
(DC11, DC53, SLD, SVERKER21, HPM31, etc..)
|Mold 10 etc..|
|Stainless||Martensitic : SUS420J2(HPM38、STAVAX、S-STAR)
Ferritic : SUS430, Austenitic : SUS304, 316L
Precipitation hardening : SUS630, Two phase : SUS329J3L
Use properly according to the use
Additionally there are the welding wire such as nickel, copper, aluminum and titanium.
Please contact us if you need further information on our "Template for welding wires",
which explains our wires in more details. We will send it to you via PDF file.
Laser Welding processing sample
Laser welding for the corner
Laser welding for reproduction of protrusions
Laser welding on steel
Example of mold repair ・correction (fixing) by Laser Welding
Example of Laser Welding Graining surface or Etching Surface ( designed surface)
In ordinary welding, it is almost impossible to repair the designed surface of the mold and the surface of the grain.
The occurrence of nests (holes), reduction of surface roughness due to heat, problems that cannot be dealt with by post-processing such as distortion and cracks occurs.
Laser Welding has little thermal influence and fine Laser Welding can modify the front face of the mold.
It can also cope with troubles during mold manufacturing process and molding.
latest laser technology of Mold processing
examples of large capacity welding using Expanding applications of Laser Welding.
From fine Laser Welding to large capacity Laser Welding.
With the introduction of the latest Laser Welding machine, we have powered up to 500W average power and 15KW peak power.
With the expanded range of usages of welding rod from 300W Φ 0.8 mm to Φ 1.2 mm of conventional machines, there is a significant reduction in man-hours The high output of 500W makes it possible to have a wider range, large-capacity Laser Welding.
With the advent of 500W high power Laser Welding machines, it is now possible to use it for welding rods of Φ 0.8 mm to Φ 1.2 mm.
This has resulted in a substantial reduction in man?hours for welding for a wide-range of Laser Welding.
Please slide sideways.
Carburizing Technology by Laser Irradiation
1. About Carburizing
There are many different types of carbuizing technologies existing today; Solid Carburizing, Gas Carburizing, Liquid Carburizing, Vacuum Carburizing(Low Pressure Gas Carburizing), Plasma Carburizing(Ion Carburizing).
- Solid Carburizing
- Uses direct application of charcoal packed around the steel in a closed condition. Carbon monoxide becomes the element for carburizing when both steel and charcoal is heated up at the same time. Due to it's inconsistance in quality, it is rarely used in modern days.
- Liquid Carburizing
- Carburizing method by melting inorganic salt containing sodium cyanide as main component, in a salt bath with a high temperature.
- Gas Carburizing
- Carburizing method using gas with main components carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane and water vapour. This method is the mainstream in modern days.
- Vacuum Carburizing
- Carburizing method by heating up after infusing gas under low pressure. (Low Pressure Gas Carburizing)
- Plasma Carburizing
- Carburizing method in low-pressured environment making use of a high-voltage (ion Carburizing) electrical field applied between the load to be treated, the furnace wall producing activated and ionized gas species responsible for carbon transfer to the work piece.
2. Carburizing Technology by Laser Irradiation
Together with Kyu-shu University, we have developed carburizing technology by laser irradiation.
- The basic processes are:
- Cleaning of the surface (degreasing)
- Coating of suface with carburizing spray
- Irradiation of laser
- Removal of oxide film
S25C Laser Hardening Results
|Cross Section Picture||Depth of hardening was 0.5mm with extra 0.1mm of hardened film on top layer.|
|Hardness||Hardened film: HRC64-66
Martensite layer: HRC46-54
|Remarks||Hardened film and Martensite layer was formed|
3. X-ray diffraction of hardened film
To find out the crystal structure of hardened film(top layer 0.1mm in depth), we analyzed it with x-ray diffraction.
We also analyzed the laser hardened layer below to see the comparison.
|・Material||S25C layer of carburized hardened film(0.1mm in depth) and S25C Laser hardened layer (0.2mm-0.5mm range)|
<S25C Hardened film by laser carburization and laser hardened layer results of x-ray>
(Red : Main crystal structures of laser hardened layer)
Martensite, Ferrite, Austenite
(Blue : Main crystal structures of hardened film)
Cementite(Fe3C), Martensite, Ferrite, Magnetite(Fe3O4), Hematite(Fe2O3)
<X-ray diffraction analysis results of laser carburized hardened film>
- Unlike laser hardened layer, we were able to recognize the peaks of cementite(Fe3C), Magnetite(Fe3O4), and Hematite(Fe2O3).
- In the preceding qualitative x-ray analysis, large area of Carbon and Oxygen were detected. In relation Fe-C and Fe-O compounds were found.
- The probable reason for having hardened film, is because of the high percentage of cementite in the structure.
- Enabled laser carburization towards, low-carbon steel and material with high percentage of ferrite.
- When proceed laser carburization, hardened film is formed on the top surface other than martensite layers.
- Unlike martensite which is an acicular structure, hardened film is layered/granular structure and is the hardest layer.
- The hardened film is mainly composed of C(Carbon), O(Oxygen) and Iron(Fe).
- The reason for becoming a hardened film, is due to it's high percentage of cementite(Fe3C) in the structure.